Molecular Marker assisted selection

Molecular Marker assisted selection (MMAS):  This is based on the understanding of the link between DNA and the appearance or characteristics of an individual. Breeders use DNA-based markers’ to identify genes associated with desired traits. This allows progeny to be screened for the genes of interest even before they express it and can thus reduce breeding times significantly. 

Conventional selection: relies on direct measurement or physical scoring of important traits e.g. yield, maturity, or disease resistance. This means the breeder has to wait until the individual expresses the trait. For traits that are expressed at maturity, this can take years in some species. MMAS: Selection is based on molecular marker patterns known to be associated with the traits of interest. It eliminates the need to wait for a long time before the trait can be expressed.